Ice cover of lakes

Rantakivikko, hento läpikuultava jääpeite

Effects of climate forcing and consequent mixing in lakes and their ice cover

Project scientist

  • Juhani Virta, professor emeritus
  • Aija-Riitta Elo, PhD

Project goals

The aim of the project is to study and improve physically based lake models, especially considering heat transport to the hypolimnion, shape of the vertical temperature profile and ice cover with their consequences in changing climate. The results give important information also about the biological and chemical conditions.


Numerical models based on physical and mathematical methods are the main tool. They are studied both theoretically and tested with data for lakes. The study was first initiated during the SILMU programme, the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change 1990-1995. Data has been collected using field investigations and registers, and new data from the Lammi Biological station are currently studied. Effects of changed climate are investigated using scenarios and data from milder climate especially for considering ice cover modelling.


A.-R. Elo, 2007. Effects of climate and morphology on temperature conditions of lakes. Report Series in Geophysics 51. Link to the publication
Doctoral dissertation Link to webpage

Project is funded by

The Finnish Cultural Foundation